54 Colo. 262 (Denver, 1913)Google Scholar. & I was not surprising. And a more economically equal society feeds into political democracy, as no one accumulates so much power that they can dominate government or their fellow citizens. Public utilities regulation was a way to ensure that the basic infrastructure of industrial capitalism remained under democratic control, rather than being able to control democracy. Rimby, S. (2021). 50. 51. Start selling. Unfortunately, both works have numerous inaccuracies concerning the 1912 election. Evidence from State Certification Requirements, Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care, Physician Licensure Laws in the United States, 18651915, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, The Mechanical Engineer in America, 18301910: Professional Cultures in Conflict, Occupational Restrictions and the Quality of Service Received: Some Evidence, The Declining Contribution of Socioeconomic Disparities to the Racial Gap in Infant Mortality Rates, Long-Term Trends in Health, Welfare, and Economic Growth in the United States, Health and Welfare During Industrialization, Occupational Licensing Legislation in the States, Journal of the American Medical Association, Changes in the Age Distribution of Mortality Over the 20th Century, The Role of Public Health Improvements in Health Advance: The 20th Century United States, Medical Malpractice in Nineteenth Century America: Origins and Legacy, Comparative Occupation Statistics for the United States, 1870 to 1940, The Welfare Cost of Quality Changes Due to Professional Regulation, Operations of Unfettered Labor Markets: Exit and Voice in American Labor Markets at the Turn of the Century, Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy, Organized Dentistry and the Pursuit of Entry Control, Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, Income from Independent Professional Practice, The Effect of Commercial Practice Restrictions: The Case of Optometry, Markets and Multiunit Firms from an American Historical Perspec-tive, Population Redistribution and Economic Growth: United States 18701950, Inventive Activity and the Market for Technology in the United States, 18401920, Quacks, Lemons and Licensing: A Theory of Minimum Quality Standards, The Origins of State Pure Food Regulation, Learning to Heal: The Development of American Medical Education, American Physicians of the Nineteenth Century: From Sects to Science, Legal Responsibility for Medical Malpractice: The Legal Matrix of Medical Malpractice, Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, Report of the Investigation of Engineering Education: Volume I, Inventive Activity in Early Industrial America: Evidence from Patent Records, 17901846, The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry, Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, Statistical Abstract of the United States, Senate Document No. APPLICATION OF CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK IN IMAGE CLASSIFICATION, Waller Newell's Tyranny: A New Interpretation, Illegal Immigration: Massive Influx of Illegal Immigrants, ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN MODERN SOCIETY.pdf, CH 4 The psychology of Second Language Acquisition.pptx, organophosphatepoisoning-200702052632 (2).pdf, Katsande SM Lesson8_Using Feedback and Sentence Variety in.pptx, G10 Math Q4 Week 8 Other forms of position of measure.pptx, Bone-Marrow-Failure-Diseases-Sept-18-2018 - Copy.pptx, Advanced View Arduino Projects List - Use Arduino for Projects-4.pdf, Advanced View of Projects Raspberry Pi List - Raspberry PI Projects.pdf, Research in oncology scientific project aqsa khan week 4.pptx, Lesson 4 (how many days, perfect week poem).pptx, the In other sectors, however, monopoly seemed almost necessary. Scamehorn, Lee, Mill & Mine: The C.F. See Colorado Bar Association, Analysis of Thirty-Two Measures, 73, 75, 8384; Vote for Eighteen of the Proposed Measures, Cast Your Vote Against Fourteen of the Bills, Denver Post, 30 October 1912. Uncategorized. Lomazoff, Eric 4. and Slide 2: Regulation of Business. In passing, Schrag does allude to that very same Southern Pacific Railroad in his list of interests, but his point of reference is not the Progressive Era, but a successful June 1990 railway bond project (Proposition 116), which Southern Pacific supported with $500,000 in contributions. Despite serious concerns about voter competence during the Progressive Era, political scientists today generally concur that voters are capable of meeting minimal requirements for decision making in direct-democracy elections. Bowler and Donovan, Demanding Choices, 20. 47. Prepare a PowerPoint Presentation on the Legacy of the Progressive Era. Whether it was Republican trustbuster Teddy Roosevelt or liberal supreme court justice Louis Brandeis, courageous leaders in this era understood that when companies grow too powerful they threatened not just the economy but democratic government as well. The push for equality by the reformers saw an increased control of the government by the citizens. Mira Lloyd Dock and the Progressive Era Conservation Movement. Concentrated economic power not only allowed for localized oppression, especially of workers in their daily lives, it also made it more likely that big corporations and wealthy people wouldnt be subject to the rule of law or democratic controls. As Lonsdale writes: The Federation obtained affidavits from many whose names appeared on the petition stating that they had never seen the petition. The group of farmers known as the Grangers fought for the regulation of the railroad industry. Theodore Roosevelt once wrote that there can be no real political democracy without something approaching an economic democracy. The truth is that the two work hand in hand. As in other states, when a popular referendum in Colorado receives a majority yes vote, it means that the legislation in question is approvingly retained by the voters. Hostname: page-component-75b8448494-48m8m Schmidt, who does not mention his 1910 visit to Colorado, cites Roosevelt's 1912 Charter of Democracy speech as his first explicit advocacy of direct-democracy reforms. Measure 22, the livestock referendum, proposed to transfer control of branding from the Secretary of State to a new board, in whom all authority would be vested. The progressive era intervened to save the future of the American people by protecting natural resources against exploitation by organizations and few individuals who have dominated the country. Prepare your PowerPoint with the following areas of focus: Regulation of Business, Greater Democracy, Conservationism, the Rise of Professionalism, and Prohibition. 2003. Greater Democracy American society . The Supreme Court ruled that it was up to each state until Congress stepped in to regulate industries. 19. Legacy of the Progressive Era HIS-144-0504 Madison Bergman Johnathan Cummins October 1, 2020 It never did and it never will.. 40. Prohibition rose during the progressive era. Ammons's administration was blemished, however, by his handling of the September 1913 strike by coal miners around Trinidad and the subsequent Ludlow Massacre in April 1914 carried out by the Colorado state militia after the mine owners convinced Ammons to send in the National Guard to keep the mines in operation. Denver Post, 2 August 1911; Rocky Mountain News, 2 August 1911. Fishback, Price V. For initiative and referendum passage rates in the states, see Magleby, Direct Legislation, 9095. In a chapter called How Aristocracy Could Issue from Industry he observed that industrial capitalism would create economic inequality between owners and wage-workers and divide them culturally, morally, and socially. No strings attached. and 63. Dai, Weijia New approaches will also be needed. We must revive public utilities regulation and think seriously about the necessary infrastructure of modern society from a public option for broadband internet to basic bank accounts for everyone. Hence, when a measure passes with a majority vote, the proponents of the popular referendum actually lose. Following his two terms as governor, Shafroth was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Democrat in 1912. 46, LAWS 1911, EIGHT HOUR LAW FOR MINERS. Thus it left a need for the Federal Government to regulate businesses. Founded in 2010, the go-to place to buy study notes for 13 years now. Some intellectuals and political figures will fight them with claims of efficiency and economic growth. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Civil rights powerpoint Kimberly Veneziano-Pulliam 30.2K views27 slides. Yes, contemporary capitalism can be compatible with liberal democracy | William Arthur Galston, Original reporting and incisive analysis, direct from the Guardian every morning, 2023 Guardian News & Media Limited or its affiliated companies. Specialization and . For brief histories of the adoption of initiative and referendum in Colorado, see Martin, Curtis and Gomez, Rudolph, Colorado Government and Politics, 4th ed. Although it never made it on the ballot, during the circulation phase proponents of the measure claimed it was the upper chamber of the legislature that had become corrupted by corporate influences, and that the only cure was to abolish the Senate. While some such restrictions had always applied, the scope of the new law was much more broad. Progressive Era Conceptions of the Corporation and the Failure of the Federal Content may require purchase if you do not have access. There are two problems with this analysis. Colorado Bar Association, Analysis of Thirty-Two Measures Submitted to the Electors of Colorado Under the Initiative and Referendum Amendment and by the 18th General Assembly (Denver, 1912), 26Google Scholar. On average, 38 percent of those who cast votes for President voted on the twenty initiatives on the ballot; 33 percent voted on the six compulsory referendums; and only 30 percent voted on the six popular referendums. Even though its been gathering dust for decades, this Gilded Age and Progressive Era playbook is the essential starting point for reform today. See Smith, Daniel A., Homeward Bound? Doing democracy: an exploration of Progressive-Era reform and its legacy for American politics. Differential Application of Utilitarian and Deontological Ethical Theories in Multicultural History of Lowell Assignment. Conservatism focused on eliminating dominant elite groups. Topic Legacy of the Progressive Era See Schmidt, Citizen Lawmakers, 226. cause the costs of reneging were so much greater for multiunit rather than single-unit firms, Specialization and Regulation. Slide 6: Prohibition. The governor did not have the opportunity either to endorse or veto the measure. Many others who personally benefit from the status quo will fight to halt, slow, or water down reforms. At this critical moment, with the age of neoliberal capitalism coming to an end, I am optimistic we can choose wisely and rescue democracy. 60. A central lesson of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era reformers is not what they did to reform the system. Indeed, while the Colorado electorate summarily rejected both public utility measures in 1912, a county-level analysis of the two votes reveals that voters in the state's sixty-two counties did not vote at the aggregate level as consistently on the two measures as might be expected. We must reinvigorate antitrust laws and create a more competitive economy. Can democracy survive what capitalism has unleashed? In 1913, the DLL, as well as some Democratic members of the House, circulated a petition for an initiative on the 1914 ballot that would have dissolved the state Senate. Professionalism improved markets as advances in knowledge and specialization made it difficult for consumers to judge professional services. Pioneers such as Frances Willard argued that men used money that they could use for family bread for drinks. Immediately available after payment. homework. Ratings. Despite opposition by the influential Denver Republican newspaper and many public officials from both major parties, voters reelected Governor Shafroth in 1910 with 54 percent of the vote. See Allswang, John, The Initiative and Referendum in California, 18981998 (Stanford, 2000), 83Google Scholar. Not all eyewitness accounts during the Progressive Era, however, were sanguine about the process. But in every state there are thousands of voters who read no newspapers regularly, whose circumstances and associations are such that they have little opportunity to read or hear any informing discussion, and who come to the polls with but the haziest notions as to what the election is all about. Haynes, George, The Education of Voters, Political Science Quarterly 22:3 (1907): 484497, 485CrossRefGoogle Scholar. 31. Document Type:Article Length:4,687 words . Unit 1 powerpoint #6 (the gilded age political machines), Wake County and Pitt County Schools, North Carolina, Controversy and conflict under andrew jackson, Poor Economic Conditions Lead to the Rise of Dictators, Module 2 Lesson 4 The Results of Exploration, The new government testing the constitution, Advanced View Arduino Projects List - Use Arduino for Projects-3.pdf, HEALTH- MORE THAN BEING DISEASE FREE.pptx, Advanced View of Projects Raspberry Pi List - Raspberry PI Projects.pdf, Advanced View Arduino Projects List - Use Arduino for Projects-2.pdf, Research in oncology scientific project aqsa khan week 4.pptx, Advanced View Arduino Projects List - Use Arduino for Projects-4.pdf, ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN MODERN SOCIETY.pdf, AMERICA SEEKS REFORMS IN THE EARLY 20 TH CENTURY, Do not sell or share my personal information. The business of benevolence: Industrial paternalism in progressive America. The wins and loses of each reform our government set in place helped make America what it is today. HIS-144 Evolution of democracy assignment scoring guide. were against modernization. Colorado Secretary of State, State of Colorado: Roster of Elected Officers and Tabulated Statement of the Votes Cast for the Several Candidates, 1913Google Scholar. Rothbard, M. N. (2017). 35. With the popular referendum, citizens petition their legislatures to place a disputed legislative action on the ballot for the voters to reconsider. As a result of this confrontation with a rapidly changing society, many new occupations . Burris's bill was opposed by the public utility corporations. During the Progressive Era, advances in knowledge and specialization led to the emergence of modern-day professions. Rise of Professionalism Colorado Secretary of State, State of Colorado: Roster of Elected Officers and Tabulated Statement of the Votes Cast for the Several Candidates, 1913Google Scholar. The progressive era created room for specialization as working conditions started to change and industrialization was taking roots in the United States. The aim of government involvement in regulating and supervising the use of natural resources was to reclaim large areas of neglected land and putting to an end to wasting natural resources. Advance in specialization and knowledge led to modern-day professions, during the progressive era. 2005. In Oregon, for instance, voters approved two initiatives in June 1908, which were placed on the ballot by upstream and downstream fisherman, that effectively eradicated the other's right to fish for salmon on the Columbia River. Western Federation of Miners, Official Proceedings, 40910. It should be noted that there are many vote discrepancies in the public record concerning the actual vote totals for and against the thirty-two measures. Progressive Era 49. Slide 5: the Rise of Professionalism. The greatest victory came when Robert M. La Follette was elected as the Wisconsin governor in 1900. Senators in direct elections. 2009. A small number of firms now dominate many sectors of the economy. For a discussion of the debate over salmon fishing in Oregon, see Bowler and Donovan, Demanding Choices, 11828. In actuality, women in Colorado gained the right to vote after male voters in November 1893 passed a constitutional amendment referendum placed on the ballot by the state legislature. (Rothbard, 2017), Professionalism See the sample ballot published in the Denver Post, 2 November 1914. The referendum, Measure 8, was approved by the voters, thereby reinstating the legislation. (modern), Antitrust, regulation, tax, democracy reforms these were rules that made industrial capitalism work, and kept it from destroying democracy.. For an excellent explanation (and frank admission of the inherent confusion) of the popular referendum in California, see Allswang, The Initiative and Referendum in California, 1819. The Battle Over Ballot Initiatives in America; Lupia, Arthur, Shortcuts versus Encyclopedias: Information and Voting Behavior in California Insurance Reform Elections, American Political Science Review 88 (1994): 6376CrossRefGoogle Scholar. In August 1912, a Denver district judge, Harry Riddle, agreed with the plaintiffs, and it looked as though Coloradoans would still be without the initiative and referendum. 32. Progressive reformers achieved greater democracy when their proposed leaders started taking over state government leadership. The court's exact language on this matter is as follows: It provides that the power reserved designated the referendum, may be ordered, except as to laws necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health or safety. Colorado Senate, 1913. Progressive democracy recognizes the need of these instruments, but it recognizes the need of keeping control of them. 34. 10Google Scholar. 2014. This growth in professions was accompanied by the adoption of occupational licensing regulation. Looking at the total votes cast in the election, even Measure 31, which had the most votes of the five legislatively referred measures, was voted upon by less than half of the people who voted on the prohibition initiative. Instead of farm problems, reformers looked at issues such as crime, and vice in the cities; provision of sufficient utilities and services for city dwellers, etc. Political democracy helps foster economic democracy as the people work to make the country more egalitarian. The corrupt leaders were replaced by reform leaders who carried the vision for the country. transportation aimed at eradicating poverty. Huber, The Progressive Career of Ben B. Lindsey, 33234. Specialization and Regulation: The Rise of Professionals Marc T. Law is Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Vermont, Old Mill Building, 94 University Place, Burlington, VT 05405-0114. Wages for workers have been largely stagnant for a generation, while CEO pay has skyrocketed. 100% Money Back Guarantee. However there the laws that were passed for the States to control the industries were inefficient. An Assessment of Direct Democracy Voters, in Sabato, Ernst, and Larson, eds., Dangerous Democracy? and Huber, The Progressive Career of Ben B. Lindsey, 34546. Total loading time: 0 67. and Not surprisingly, the proposal was roundly condemned by area newspapers. Slide 3: Greater Democracy. HIS 144. Essays. For especially good accounts of the campaigns to adopt initiative and referendum mechanisms in other states, see Goebel, Thomas, A Case of Democratic Contagion: Direct Democracy in the American West, 18901920, Pacific Historical Review (05 1997): 213230Google Scholar; Piott, Steven, The Origins of the Initiative and Referendum in America, Hayes Historical Journal 11 (Spring 1992): 517Google Scholar; and in the case of California, Allswang, The Initiative and Referendum in California, 818. Newspapers of the day rarely referred to the specific corporate holdings of Evans. social work, and special education McCuan, David, California's Political Warriors: Campaign Professionals and the Initiative Process, in Bowler, Shaun, Donovan, Todd, and Tolbert, Caroline, eds., Citizens as Legislators (Columbus, Ohio, 1998), 5556Google Scholar. In addition to guarding against the accumulation of economic power, Progressive Era reformers sought to prevent it being converted into political power. See also Arthur Lupia, Dumber than Chimps? 62. For the reemergence of party involvement in ballot campaigns, see Smith, Daniel A. and Tolbert, Caroline, The Initiative to Party: Partisanship and Ballot Initiatives in California, Party Politics 7 (Winter 2001): 781799CrossRefGoogle Scholar. HIS-144.ONL.Darwinism and American Society.Scoring Guide. Publisher:John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc. Miners' Magazine, vol. Senator Thomas Patterson, a civic reformer. Chapter 21: The Progressive Era Laura Daill 3.6K views40 slides. 4.6 stars on Google & Trustpilot (+1000 reviews) 100354 documents were sold in the last 30 days. Render date: 2023-05-01T13:32:06.144Z Rev., 1017. 45. for this article. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022050705000264, Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. The progressive era introduced a number of professions. 16. View all Google Scholar citations Presentation. The recall enables citizens to collect signatures to force a retention vote of an elected official. Once the amended bill had passed through both chambers of the legislature, it went directly to the ballot for November, bypassing the governor's desk all together. Grand Canyon University. 11 The Progressive Era was accompanied by a rise in government regulation more generally and this article contributes to this larger literature. Heather Houston In conse-quence, a primarily small-town agrarian society became trans-formed into an urban industrial one. Progressives sought to address the problems caused by rapid . Although South Dakota (1898) and Utah (1900) had established direct-democracy mechanisms before Oregon (1902), citizens in Oregon were the first to use the statewide plebiscitary reforms. More than a century ago, when industrial capitalism was on the rise, reformers and intellectuals outlined and adopted a variety of structures to keep the feral beast within a democratic enclosure. Fishback, "Operations of 'Unfettered' Labor . Colorado Secretary of State, State of Colorado: Roster of Elected Officers and Tabulated Statement of the Votes Cast for the Several Candidates, Tuesday, November 5, A.D. 1912 (Denver, 1913)Google Scholar. The Gilded Age Villa Santa Maria 34.7K views36 slides. Lamm, Richard and Smith, Duane, Pioneers and Politicians: 10 Colorado Governors in Profile (Boulder, 1984), 99Google Scholar. Musselman claims that Roosevelt was equivocal, at best, in his support of the direct legislation measure. Holmes, Rebecca See Magleby, David, Direct Legislation in the American States, in Butler, David and Ranney, Austin, eds., Referendums around the World (Washington, D.C., 1994), 230231Google Scholar. 37. Opponents of direct democracy then tried to convince Secretary of State James Pearce, a Democrat, that the vast majority of the signatures on the various petitions circulating for the 1912 election were forgeries. 23. 27. 487, 24 10 1912, 3Google Scholar. These affidavits were given to the Secretary of State. Lonsdale, The Movement for an Eight-Hour Law in Colorado, 274. Such firms assumed an inexhaustible supply of natural resources, but this was threatening the future lives of the people. Unfortunately, few accounts exist concerning the electioneering of these and other measures. See Barnett, The Operation of The Initiative, Referendum, and Recall in Oregon, 7585; Ellis, Democratic Delusions, 3035. We need to create a more just and equitable tax system including treating all income the same, adopting a wealth tax, and reviving estate and inheritance taxes. See especially Chavez, Lydia, The Color Bind: California's Battle to End Affirmative Action (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1998)Google Scholar, and Mahtesian, Charles, Grassroots Charade, Governing (11 1998): 3842Google Scholar. Yet the bivariate Pearson product moment correlation between the percentage of the county yes vote for both measures is positively related (r= .600) and significant (p<.01, 2-tailed, n = 62), indicating that there may have been considerable voter confusion about the two initiatives. In order of adoption, the states that adopted public utilities commissions were: New York and Wisconsin, 1907; Vermont, 1908; Maryland, 1910; Washington, New Hampshire, Kansas, Nevada, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Ohio, 1911; California and Rhode Island, 1912. Published online by Cambridge University Press: Progressive reformers achieved greater democracy when their proposed The Progressive Era lasaunders 11.2K views42 slides. The Eightieth constitutional amendment prohibited the reinsert, sales, and manufacture of alcoholic beverages. Conservationists acted by asking the government to regulate and supervise the nations natural resources to preserve them for future generations. 42. Feature Flags: { Prepare a PowerPoint Presentation on the Legacy of the Progressive Era. Again, one might expect the county-level vote on the two measures to be inversely related, as a yes vote on the initiative, which would reinstate the language of the 1905 legislation, would have the same effect as voting no on the popular referendum. 61. The reform was not much successful in urban states. Prepare your PowerPoint with the following areas of focus: Slide 1: Introduction. 58. Antitrust, regulation, tax, democracy reforms these were rules that made industrial capitalism work, and kept it from destroying democracy. 66. Greater Democracy 72. Smith, Daniel A. Walter Wellman, Walter Wellman's Indictment of Moyer, Haywood and the Western Federation of Miners, unpublished manuscript, Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy, 1910, 10. Their first act was, The Interstate Commerce Act 1. In several cases, the vote totals on the actual county returns do not match the entries on the state abstract of the vote; in other cases, there are vote totals in parentheses on the county returns that are slightly different from the official typed count. These early results contradict the established finding that compulsory referendums placed on the ballot by state legislatures are historically much more likely to pass than initiatives and popular referendums. He served only one term, defeated by Republican Lawrence Phipps in 1918. Total loading time: 0 Wilcox, Delos, Government by All the People (New York, 1912), 310Google Scholar. Penn State University Press. Chesnes, Matthew and the Progressive Era Conservation Movement (pp. 87, Issue 4.) Perspective on Direct Democracy: Who Directs Direct Democracy? The progressive era intervened to save the future of the American people. To prevent economic power from infecting politics, they passed the first federal campaign finance laws. Shafroth was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican in 1894 and then as a Silver Republican for two more terms (1896 and 1898). See Knight, Harold, Working in Colorado: A Brief History of the Colorado Labor Movement (Boulder, 1971), 49Google Scholar. 3. To realize the Progressive hope of introducing greater efficiency, candor, and justice into the conduct of public affairs, Wilson had to surrender the Progressive commitment to individualism and democracy. Feature Flags: { View all Google Scholar citations It made more sense to have a single telephone network in America, given the high costs of building the network and the importance of having everyone on it. For concise overviews of the main substantive and normative issues concerning the direct-democracy debate, see Smith, Daniel A., Direct Democracy and Its Critics, in Woolley, Peter and Papa, Albert, eds., American Politics: Core Argument/Current Controversy, 2d ed. In voicing its opposition, the paper read, This amendment was gotten up by William G. Evans and the corrupt corporations which he represents and controls, and which he destroyed and ruined. So the People May Know, Denver Post, 2 November 1914 (emphasis added). This will, as Thomas Jefferson once said of his own economic reforms, lay the axe to the root of pseudoaristocracy. And to accomplish these reforms and others we will need to start by passing new laws that prevent the corruption of our political process: campaign finance laws, anti-corruption laws, revolving door laws, lobbying laws, and pro-democracy reforms that will empower the people, not just the powerful. Prohibition, Government began regulating businesses in 1887 Almost 200 years later, Tocquevilles fears seem prescient. See League Preparing Reply to Foes of School Measure, Denver Times, 18 October 1912; Teachers Outline Attitude Toward New School Law, Denver Times, 19 October 1912; Judge Lindsey Is Answered, Rocky Mountain News, 24 October 1912; and Two Initiated Measures Which School Well Wishers Condemn, Denver Republican, 3 November 1912. alexandra pick up lines, zimmer funeral home obituaries,
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